The Moltmanniac discovered three more Jürgen Moltmann lectures freely available via Princeton Theological Seminary. The first two are from the year Moltmann spent in America after the publication of Theology of Hope (ET), and the other corresponds to the publication of The Crucified God.
- Resurrection as Hope
(MP3 Mirror: Part 1, Part 2)
- The Future as Paradigm of Transcendence
(MP3 Mirror: Part 1, Part 2)
- The Crucified God: A Chapter in the Theology of Liberation
(MP3 Mirror: Part 1, Part 2)
(*) This audio is offered by the seminary as a free resource for personal use and is not to be sold or copied for financial gain.
In October 2001, Jürgen Moltmann delivered the Grider-Winget Lecture series at Nazarene Theological Seminary, and these have been digitized and freely provided by the moltmanniac.
My eyes were first open to Christ Jesus in a Pentecostal church when I was five years old in southern Michigan. I remember being afraid of drowning during the baptismal immersion. I remember the waters were as cold as ice, and then afterwards, violently trembling in the wintry cold basement of the church without a towel. My teeth chattered and my words stuttered and my body shivered from my Siberian style baptism in such a way that I was speaking in tongues for the first time, such that maybe this was the initial evidence of being "Baptized in the Spirit" for the first time (or only the onset of hypothermia). My home is now in the Reformed Church tradition, and although I left the Holiness and Pentacostal Tradition of my youth, I will never forget that this was "where my eyes were first opened to Christ" as Karl Barth once described conversion. However, looking back on all the charismatic experiences, I believe much of my experiences way back when, may now require demythologization.
Friedrich Schleiermacher's doctrine of the Trinity was arguably an appendix to the Christian Faith, yet in many ways he has commonality with the Holiness and Pentecostal Tradition due to his famous formula of Piety a "feeling of absolute dependence." (Read Vinson Synan's The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition to learn more about non-trinitarian Pentecostal Churches such as the "Oneness" movement and for a general history of the American Pentecostal Tradition). The Pentacostal Church experience provides a means for a person to worship that isnt exclusively cerebrial or ritualistic, and allows for free expressions of joy that are common to man that are not common to services, such as screaming, dancing, extatic speech, jumping and running. Isn't this an experience of "feeling of absolute dependence"?
As Pentecost 2015 approaches, I've been reading Jürgen Moltmann's The Spirit of Life: A Universal Affirmation and meditating on the experience of the Holy Spirit. In this book, Moltmann has a surprisingly positive assessment of glossolalia (speaking in tongues). I read this recently and thought that he described my experience with Pentecostal Churches quite well, despite that he was a stranger to the American Pentacostal Tradition. Since the Church is "a broad place", as Moltmann might say, then in this season of Pentecost, and a time to experience the Spirit of Christ Jesus. It is a retrospective season for me, looking back to when I first began to experience the Spirit of Life.
§2 SPEAKING WITH TONGUES
It is a historically indisputable phenomenon that the birth of the Christian congregations was accomplished by ‘speaking with tongues’. This is already reported in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 2, (Acts 2:1-47) in its account of the first Pentecost. it can also hardly be disputed that the Christian revival movements have been accompanied by the same phenomenon. Finally, there is no doubt at all that today Pentecostal and charismatic congregations are growing everywhere, not only in the countries of the young churches but in the older Christian countries too. I have no personal experience of this phenomenon, so I can neither explain nor dispute it. I can only describe it from the outside, from its effect on the people concerned. It would seem to me to be an inward possession by the Spirit which is so strong that it can no longer find adequate expression in comprehensible language, so that it utters itself in glossolalia – just as intense pain is expressed by unrestrained weeping, or extreme joy by jumping and dancing. ‘With praise and adoration a charismatic community responds to what God has revealed in word and act. New love and words, spontaneous prayers, speaking with tongues, prophecies and testimonies springing spontaneously from the immediate situation, as well as an expressive body language in the form of raised hands, clapping, kneeling, throwing oneself on the ground before God, and dancing: all these have become typical characteristics of gatherings in the context of charismatic renewal’
It is certainly true that our regular, mainline church services display a wealth of ideas and reflections in their sermons, but are poverty-stricken in their forms of expression, and offer no opportunity at all for spontaneity. They are disciplined and disciplinary assemblies for talking and listening. But does the body of Christ really consist simply of one big mouth and a lot of little ears? So it is liberating for us Europeans to share the charismatic worship of black people in Africa and the United States, and to see and learn a body language which is different from our European ‘sitting-still-with-folded-hands’. I would interpret ‘speaking with tongues’ as the beginning, when the tongues of the dumb are loosened, and they express what they themselves experience and feel. Perhaps we can see an analogy in scream therapy, although speaking with tongues goes beyond any purely human possibility. It is at all events a new way of expressing the experience of faith, and it is a personal way. Paul also advises the congregation to ‘strive for’ (RSV: ‘earnestly desire’) charismata (1 Cor 14:1), but most of all ‘that you may prophesy’. By this he means personal, comprehensible witness in preaching and pastoral care. In his view, therefore, speaking with tongues can be interpreted in the Holy Spirit, and he believes it is God-given.
Prophetic speech is a special charismata, for in a particular personal or public kairos it discovers the appropriate, binding and liberating word, and says specifically and at the right time what sin is, and what grace. This appropriate word cannot be deduced from any doctrine, nor can it be psychologically figured out from the situation. But one can develop sensibility for the congruity of the appropriate word and the proper time, and can become open for it, so that it can happen.
The fact that the congregations who listen to sermons with us are hardly enabled to give any personal conviction. Many people are quite satisfied to belong to the church, to go to church occasionally, and to agree by and large with the church’s doctrine, even if they do not know much about it, and it does not mean very much to them. The awakening of personally experienced and personally expressed faith is the ‘charismatic experience’ today. Before the mainline churches and the bishops and other leaders ‘quench’ the Spirit of the ‘charismatic movement’, we should all make room for the Spirit, not only in church services, but in our bodies too, since those bodies are, after all, supposed to be ‘a temple of the Holy Spirit’ (1 Cor 6:19).
But we have to put a critical question to the ‘charismatic movement’: what about the neglect of charismata? Where are the charismata of the ‘charismatics’ in the everyday world, in the peace movement, in the movements for liberation, in the ecology movement? If charismata are not given us so that we can flee from this world into a world of religious dreams, but if they are intended to witness to the liberating lordship of Christ in this world’s conflicts, then the charismatic movement must not become a non-political religion, let alone a de-politicized one.
Moltmann, Jürgen. The Spirit of Life: A Universal Affirmation. Trans. Margaret Kohl. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993. 185-6. Print.
Image Source: "Duccio di Buoninsegna 018" by Duccio - The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002. ISBN 3936122202. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH.. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.
The audio from Karl Barth's famous 1962 Warfield lectures at Princeton Seminary is freely available from Princeton Seminary's online library. I received these audio lectures from the moltmanniac, and what I received from him, I pass on to you. Not long ago, Princeton Seminary celebrated the 50th anniversary of Karl Barth's Warfield Lectures.
Karl Barth 1962 Warfield Lectures (audio):
- Karl Barth Meets the Students of Princeton Seminary (Mirror: Part 1, Part 2)
- Lecture 1 - Theology (Mirror: Part 1, Part 2)
- Lecture 2 - The Witnesses (Mirror: Part 1, Part 2)
- Lecture 3 - The Community (Mirror: Part 1, Part 2)
- Lecture 4 - The Spirit (Mirror: Part 1, Part 2)
- Questions and Discussion (Mirror: Part 1, Part 2)
*Please note that this audio is made available as a free resource by the seminary for personal use and is not to be copied or distributed for financial gain.
(Image Source: KBarth.org http://kbarth.org/gallery/nggallery/karl-barth/united-states, used with permission)
The Moltmanniac has shared another set of audio lectures by Jürgen Moltmann that he's received from Princeton Theological Seminary's library: 1976 Lectures on Messianic Life Style, Human Rights, and Liberation.
Jürgen Moltmann's 1976 Lectures on Messianic Life Style, Human Rights, and Liberation (Audio):
- Messianic Life Style
(MP3 Mirror: Part 1, Part 2).
- The Trinitarian History of God
(MP3 Mirror: Part 1, Part 2).
- God’s Covenant and Human Rights
(MP3 Mirror: Part 1, Part 2).
- The Theology of Liberation and the Third World
(MP3 Mirror: Part 1, Part 2).
(*) Please note that this audio is made available as a free resource by the seminary for personal use and is not to be copied or distributed for financial gain.
For more Moltmann audio & video:
- Jürgen Moltmann's 1976 Lectures on Messianic Life Style, Human Rights, and Liberation (Audio)
- Jürgen Moltmann at the Emergent Village Theological Conversation in 2009 (audio)
- Moltmanniac's Audio and Video Resource Collection:
The @moltmanniac has shared Jurgen Moltmann's 1979 Warfield Lectures on the Trinity from Princeton Theological Seminary's library. These lectures coupled to Moltmann's excellent book The Trinity and the Kingdom. Download and archive these lectures!
From the moltmanniac.com:
Below is a listing of the lectures with links to where the audio can be downloaded in a variety of formats. Please note that this audio is made available as a free resource by the seminary for personal use and is not to be copied or distributed for financial gain.
My friend Dr. Marty Folsom recently invited me to view his impressive theological library in his home, and indeed, it is one of the biggest private collections of theological books I've seen in Washington State, with over 14,000 select volumes. I've never seen so many volumes by great theologians including Karl Barth, Jürgen Moltmann, Ray Anderson and the entire Torrance family tree. Marty also showed me his impressive doctoral thesis: A Comparative Assessment of the Concept of Freedom in the Anthropologies of John Macmurray, John Zizioulas, and Karl Barth. It was an edenic moment and an inspiration!
As a parting gift, Marty gave me two of books that he had authored: Face to Face: Volume One: Missing Love and Face to Face: Volume Two: Discovering Relational, and there is also a third volume forthcoming in the Face to Face series. Here is a quote from the first volume:
Sin is a concern for self. The word "synthetic" refers to human-made products. In this book, I contend that we have a "sin-thetic" life because, left to ourselves, we construct our own lives as individuals, overlooking consideration for God or neighbor. But a life apart from God is artificial. We are self-made. It feels good to be the master of our own life. Thus, I do not see sin as a life of being bad or breaking the rules. Rather, the sin-thetic life is a self-centered life that separates us from those we need (and who need us) to live a mutual life of love.
An authentic life is lived in a trusting openness with other, including God, in honesty and collaboration. I am all about a new vision that gets this kind of meaningful life, and does not default to legalistic religion or constraining morality. This book begins the process of transformation that opens up when we turn our hearts to meet God and others face-to-face.
Folsom, Marty. Introduction. Face to Face: Volume One: Missing Love. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2013. xxi. Print.
Disclosure of Material Connection: I received these book free from Marty Folsom in exchange for a review on this blog. I was not required to write a positive review. The opinions I have expressed are my own. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255 : "Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising."
Jürgen Moltmann's The Power for the Powerless: The Word of Liberation For Today is a collection of sermons I'm reading that was recommended by the moltmanniac.com. The following quotation is from the fifth sermon, The New Covenant of Freedom (Jeremiah 31:31-34).
"The days are surely coming, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah. It will not be like the covenant that I made with their ancestors when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt—a covenant that they broke, though I was their husband, says the Lord. But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord: I will put my law within them, and I will write it on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. No longer shall they teach one another, or say to each other, “Know the Lord,” for they shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest, says the Lord; for I will forgive their iniquity, and remember their sin no more." (NRSV Jeremiah 31:31-43)
Sermons will be superfluous. No one will have to preach them and no one will have to listen to them. Church will be superfluous. No one will have to attend services or pay their financial dues. Clergy, teachers, professors and students of theology will be superfluous. The theological faculties can be closed down. The teaching ministry of the church will be superfluous, whether it is fallible or infallible, or Rome, Tübingen, or wherever it may be. The Bible, both the Old and the New Testaments, the interpration of Scripture and the disputes about the Bible will all be superfluous. It is all superfluous, and it all comes to an end, once it has achieved its purpose, when - yes, when 'the days come' in which God will make the new, final, indestructible covenant with men and women. When God will write his law in their hearts; when God will be our God in our inmost being; when we become his people with all our hearts, then, 'No one will teach and preach to the other any longer, saying "Know the Lord", for they shall all know him, face to face, from the greatest of them to the least.
Moltmann, Jürgen. The Power of the Powerless: The Word of Liberation For Today. Trans. Margaret Kohl. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1983. 38-9. Print.
The Book of Common Prayer is an excellent resource for anyone looking for family devotions for this Passion Week 2015. The Book of Common Prayer dates from 16th century England at the time of King Edward VI, and is the official liturgical book of The Episcopal Church and used throughout the Anglican Communion. It is an ubiquitous publication, that is easily found for a few dollars at any used book store and is available online for free. It is a resource useful to any pastor, and every pastor should own one. It contains the Church's Calendar, liturgical readings and example prayers and ordinances to conduct ministry in the most common situations. For instance, what should one say when visiting a sick person, or how should a wedding be conducted? The Book of Common Prayer says explicitly. The great value of using such an ancient and widely used book, is to know that when you celebrate this Passion Week, that others around the world will be worshiping in the same way. Other denominations have similar liturgical works, for instance, I have a Book of Common Worship, that is a Presbyterian version of The Book of Common Prayer.
To inspire you you, I've provided a quotation from The Book of Common Prayer on Palm Sunday. The entry is designed to be a Church Service, with the Eucharist being the Lord's Supper. Read through the responsive readings, or at a minimum one of the scripture readings alone or with your family over a meal. There are similar entries to the following quotation on Palm Sunday for Maunday Thursday, Good Friday, Holy Saturday and the Great Vigil of Easter. Additionally there are various Collects for each of the days of the Passion week besides the official liturgy.
The Sunday of the Passion: Palm Sunday
The Liturgy of the Palms
When circumstances permit, the congregation may gather at a place apart from the church, so that all may go into the church in procession.
The branches of palm or of other trees or shrubs to be carried in the procession may be distributed to the people before the service, or after the prayer of blessing.
The following or some other suitable anthem is sung or said, the people standing
Blessed is the King who comes in the name of the Lord.
Peace in heaven and glory in the highest.
Celebrant: Let us pray.
Assist us mercifully with your help, O Lord God of our salvation, that we may enter with joy upon the contemplation of those mighty acts, whereby you have given us life and immortality; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Here a Deacon or other person appointed reads one of the following
Year A: Matthew 21:1-11
Year B: Mark 11:1-11a
Year C: Luke 19:29-40
The Celebrant then says the following blessing
Celebrant: The Lord be with you.
People: And also with you.
Celebrant: Let us give thanks to the Lord our God.
People: It is right to give him thanks and praise.
It is right to praise you, Almighty God, for the acts of love by which you have redeemed us through your Son Jesus Christ our Lord. On this day he entered the holy city of Jerusalem in triumph, and was proclaimed as King of kings by those who spread their garments and branches of palm along his way. Let these branches be for us signs of his victory, and grant that we who bear them in his name may ever hail him as our King, and follow him in the way that leads to eternal life; who lives and reigns in glory with you and the Holy Spirit, now and for ever. Amen.
The following or some other suitable anthem may then be sung or said
Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.
Deacon: Let us go forth in peace.
People: In the name of Christ. Amen.
During the procession, all hold branches in their hands, and appropriate hymns, psalms, or anthems are sung, such as the hymn "All glory, laid, and honor" and Psalm 118:19-29.
At a suitable place, the procession may halt while the following or some other appropriate Collect is said
Almighty God, whose most dear Son went not up to joy but first he suffered pain, and entered not into glory before he was crucified: Mercifully grant that we, walking in the way of the cross, may find it none other than the way of life and peace; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
In the absence of a bishop or priest, the preceding service may be led by a deacon or lay reader.
At services on this day other than the principal celebration, suitable portions of the preceding may be used.
At the Eucharist
When the Liturgy of the Palms immediately precedes the Eucharist, the celebration begins with the Salutation and Collect of the Day.
Let us pray.
Almighty and everliving God, in your tender love for the human race you sent your Son our Savior Jesus Christ to take upon him our nature, and to suffer death upon the cross, giving us the example of his great humility: Mercifully grant that we may walk in the way of his suffering, and also share in his resurrection; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.
Old Testament: Isaiah 45:21-25, or Isaiah 52:13--53:12
Psalm: Psalm 22:1-21, or Psalm 22:1-11
Epistle: Philippians 2:5-11
The Passion Gospel is announced in the following manner
The Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ according to_________
The customary responses before and after the Gospel are omitted.
Year A: Matthew 26:36-27:54,55-66 or Matthew 27:1-54,55-66
Year B: Mark 14:32-15:39,40-47 or Mark 15:1-39,40-47
Year C: Luke 22:39-23:49,50-56 or Luke 23:1-49,50-56
The Passion Gospel may be read or chanted by different persons.Specific roles may be assigned to different persons, the congregation taking the part of the crowd.
The congregation may be seated for the first part of the Passion. At the verse which mentions the arrival at Golgotha (Matthew 27:33, Mark 15:22, Luke 23:33) all stand.
When the Liturgy of the Palms has preceded, the Nicene Creed and the Confession of Sin may be omitted at this service.
Preface of Holy Week
Book of Common Prayer. New York: Church Hymnal Corporation, n.d.
BCPOnline.org. Web. 30 Mar. 2015.
Header Image Source: "Assisi-frescoes-entry-into-jerusalem-pietro lorenzetti" by Pietro lorenzetti - http://www.aiwaz.net/panopticon/lorenzetti-pietro/gc58p0. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.
In Jürgen Moltmann's The Spirit of Life: A Universal Affirmation, he provides a biblical argument for Women in Ministry that is rooted in Joel 2:28-30, 'It shall come to pass in the last days, says the Lord, that I will pour out my spirit on all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy . . .' (cf. Acts 2:17ff). All baptized men and women have received the Holy Spirit, such that none may remind silence, and all shall prophesy. Moltmann explains that we must start with Pentecost and our experience of the Spirit. There is one Spirit and many gifts or charisma. And all the gifts (charisma) of the Spirit collectively form the charismata. Moltmann says, "To be a woman is a charisma, to be a man is a charisma, and to be different charismata operate together for the rebirth of life." The one Spirit forms a community of all men and all women, and this is not confined within ecclesiastical boundaries either. Moltmann believes patriarchy was introduced into the church by Constantine, but this Hierarchical model (i.e. patriarchy) is not the right understanding of the Scriptures. Furthermore, this determines that the Image of God should likewise be interpreted to include women as well: "human beings have been created to be the image of God as man and women. The community of the sexes to the community of generations."
There are more Women in Ministry than ever before, and more and more churches are ordaining women Bishops, Elders and Deacons. However, there is still strong opposition to opening all of the Church offices to women by some conservative Evangelical churches. This opposition often originates in people who believe that the Scriptures oppose women ordination and who desire to be faithful to the Scriptures against perceived societal pressures. The Complimentarian versus Egalitarian debate might be sidestepped by reading the Scriptures again with Jürgen Moltman.
The following quotation is from Jürgen Moltmann's The Spirit of Life: A Universal Affirmation. I've added the additional headers to what would otherwise be a continuous quote of Chapter XI §2.3 "Community between Women and Men". (For more on Moltmann and Feminism, listen to this audio: Jürgen Moltmann on Women at the 2009 Emergent Village Theological Conversation.)
The image of God as man and woman, explained by the Prophet Joel:
Human beings have been created to be the image of God as man and woman. The community of the sexes corresponds to the community of generations. This too was already given to the Christian church beforehand by the way of creation and history — and given, moreover, in its always specific psycho-social form. What fellowship do women and men arrive at in fellowship with Christ and in their experience of the Spirit who desires to give life to all flesh? How do women and men experience one another in the community of Christ's people, and in the fellowship of the life-engendering Mother Spirit? This is not merely a matter of church politics, and it is not solely an ethical question either. It is a question of faith, which means that it is a challenging question about the experience of the Spirit in the community of Christ. According to the promise in Joel 2:28-30 'It shall come to pass in the last days, says the Lord, that I will pour out my spirit on all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy . . .' (cf. Acts 2:17ff). The eschatological hope for experience of the Spirit is shared by women and men equally. Men and women will 'prophesy' and proclaim the gospel. According to the prophecy in Joel 2, through the shared experience of the Spirit the privileges of men compared with women, of the old compared with the young, and of masters compared with 'men-servants and maidservants' will be abolished. In the kingdom of the Spirit, everyone will experience his or her own endowment and all will experience the new fellowship together.
The Christological and Hierarchically Error:
The 'new community of women and men' which is being sought in the many churches today is a question of experience of the Spirit. This is disregarded by theologians who transfer the conditions of hierarchically organized church to marriage in particular, and to the position of women in relation to men in general. Their monotheism knows only monarchy: one God — one Christ — one pope — one bishop — one church; and the man is accordingly the monarch in marriage (pater familias), with a God-given leadership role, and the woman is destined to serve, in subordination to him. This is to think in Roman terms, not Christian ones. It has meant that ever since Constantine, women have been excluded from the priestly ministry, although baptism has made them just as much bearers of the Spirit as baptized men.
Protestant theologians who proceed from a Christocentric concept of the church arrive at the same judgment: just as God is 'the head' of Christ, so Chris is 'the head' of the church, and the man has accordingly to be the 'head' of the woman (1 Cor 11). They transfer the relationship between Christ and the church to the relationship between men and women, as if the man represented Christ and the woman the church. This Christocentric interpretation also leads logically to the exclusion of women from the ministry or 'spiritual office', although through baptism women have received the Spirit just as much as men, and are destined to 'prophesy', and are therefore in faith already 'spiritual'.
Christocentric and Hierarchical organization represses the early Christian experience of Pentecost:
Neither the hierarchical nor the Christocentric ecclesiologies cherish any further expectation of an experienceable outpouring of the Spirit, and they repress the early Christian experience of Pentecost. Both the hierarchical and the Christocentric notions of the church are clerical, because they transfer conditions in the church to family and social relationships between men and women in secular society, and are ready to make the 'anti-Christian spirit of the age' responsible for the protests which consequently arise.
If, on the other hand, we start from the early Christian experience of Pentecost, we have to develop a pneumatological concept of the church: there is one Spirit and many gifts. Everyone concerned, whether man or woman, is endowed and committed through his or her calling, wherever he or she is, and whatever he or she is. To be a woman is a charisma, to be a man is a charisma, and to be different charismata operate together for the rebirth of life. Because the Spirit is poured out 'on all flesh', merely ecclesiastical flesh cannot be meant. Cultural experiences and movements too are shot through by the Spirit. Whatever accords with the fulfillment of the Joel promise in church and culture is the operation of the Spirit. Whatever contradicts it is spiritless and deadly. When, in the nineteenth- and twentieth-century, feminist movement women have risen up against the patriarchy and have broken the silence forced on them and 'prophesied', this is spirit from God's Spirit, which 'comes upon all flesh' so that it may live.
On the Feminist Movement:
The pneumatological concept of the church discerns that church and culture are interwoven in the interplay of the 'spiritual' — which means life-giving — impulses conferred on 'all flesh'. In this case the eschatological experience of the Spirit takes in both Christianity and the feminist movement, and brings them into a mutually fruitful relationship. Feminist theology mediates between the two in as much as a powerful trend in it uncovers the often suppressed traditions in Church history which have to do with the liberation of women, and works for the psycho-social liberation of women in church and society. Christianity learns from the feminist movement that the patriarchal disparagement and suppression of women's charismata are sins against the Spirit. The feminist movement can learn from Christianity, and from other movements, that it is not merely a question of the human rights of women; it is a matter of the rebirth of all the living. And through both Christianity and the feminist movement, men will be liberated from the dominating role which isolates them from life and alienates them from themselves, freed for their true humanity, their own charismata, and for a community with women on all levels in society and the church, a community which will futher life.
Moltmann, Jürgen. The Spirit of Life: A Universal Affirmation. Trans. Margaret Kohl. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993. 239-41. Print.